Hereditary renal adysplasia, pulmonary hypoplasia and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome: a case report
1 Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of San Juan; Department of Gynecology, "Miguel Hernández" University, Campus of San Juan, Alicante, Spain
2 Centro de Genética Humana. Alicante, Spain
3 Bioarray S.L., Alicante, Spain
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2010, 5:6 doi:10.1186/1750-1172-5-6Published: 14 April 2010
Hereditary renal adysplasia is an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance and variable expression that is usually associated with malformative combinations (including Müllerian anomalies) affecting different mesodermal organs such as the heart, lung, and urogenital system.
A case showing pulmonary hypoplasia, hip dysplasia, hereditary renal adysplasia, and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome in adulthood is reported here. The i.v. pyelography showed right renal agenesis with a normal left kidney and ureter. Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging also showed right renal agenesis with multicystic embryonary remnants in the right hemipelvis probably corresponding to a dysgenetic kidney. An uretrocystoscopy showed absence of ectopic ureter and of the right hemitrigone. She was scheduled for a diagnostic laparoscopy and creation of a neovagina according to the McIndoe technique with a prosthesis and skin graft. Laparoscopy confirmed the absence of the uterus. On both sides, an elongated, solid, rudimentary uterine horn could be observed. Both ovaries were also elongated, located high in both abdominal flanks and somewhat dysgenetics. A conventional cytogenetic study revealed a normal female karyotype 46, XX at a level of 550 GTG bands. A CGH analysis was performed using a 244K oligoarray CGH detecting 11 copy number variants described as normal variants in the databases. The 17q12 and 22q11.21 microdeletions described in other MRKH patients were not present in this case. Four years after operation her evolution is normal, without symptoms and the neovagina is adequately functional. The geneticists have studied her family history and the pedigree of the family is shown.
We suggest that primary damage to the mesoderm (paraaxil, intermediate, and lateral) caused by mutations in a yet unidentified gene is responsible for: 1) skeletal dysplasia, 2) inappropriate interactions between the bronchial mesoderm and endodermal lung bud as well as between the blastema metanephric and ureteric bud, and eventually 3) Müllerian anomalies (peritoneal mesothelium) at the same level. These anomalies would be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity.